Pilot 4 : Lavrion - Greece

Pilot Case Study - Lavrion, Greece

Phytoremediation Solution and concurrent Metal Phytomining in Lavrion Historic Mine Site – Post
Mining Environmental Management



At Lavrion pilot site, in situ Nature-based and Eco-friendly solutions for mines and mining waste (i.e., phtytoremediation-phytoextraction technologies and bioleaching) will be implemented and tested, focusing on mining and metallurgical waste deposited in specific areas within or at the borders of the urban tissue. Metals such As, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn are present in very high concentrations in waste piles and are mainly in form of sulfides and oxides. Both soil remediation and the possibility of creating an added economical value (by recovering metals) will be evaluated. The proposed site is ideal for testing a) Phytoremediation Solution and concurrent Metal Phytomining using Trees (LAMMC) and b) Novel In-Situ Bioleaching Eco-Friendly Technology for the Recovery of Critical Metals from Mine Waste. In the first case, in situ, bioleaching for the mobilization of heavy metals from soils/deposits followed by recovery from specific trees will be demonstrated, together with the immobilization of heavy metals (and especially) arsenic by soil amendments (utilizing basic iron sulfates). The success of immobilization will be approved using column experiments, while suggestions will be made for further utilization of the biomass (rich in metals) based on specific tests (chemical and mineralogical analyses, bioavailability fractions, etc.). In the second case, the use of microorganisms to recover metals from complex wastes present in Lavrion area (tailings, slags, rock dumps, etc.), will be demonstrated. The abundance of metals in form of sulfides favors the use of ferric iron, as a primary oxidant, in presence of acidophiles that are naturally occurring in mining and mining waste environments (such as the pilot area). Apart from soil remediation, the recovery of critical metals (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd) from the downstream process will be evaluated, along with the possibility of recovering sulfur that is remaining in solution. Finally, the environmental and social impacts regarding the implementation of the selected method(s)/technologies(s) will be targeted, focusing on the after-mining era and the relevant stakeholders’ engagement.


  • Narrow sub-level stopping is used to extract the ore at Björkdal mine which, considering the number of ore bodies, puts a large demand on both the planning and extraction process that must be both accurate and efficient to survive on the market. The success of the narrow vein mining technique used are closely depending on the ability to drill long, straight production holes. To solve or improve these challenges, would also improve the possibilities to excavate other narrow, thin, vertical mineralisation in Europe.

Pilot KPIs

Rehabilitation performance Energy consumption savings Resources’ consumption savings Emissions
  • Minimisation of wastes.
  • Increase of natural environment recovery.


  • Increase of metal recovery
  • Increase EU dependency in CRM
  • Annihilation of toxic emissions.

Services to be Validated

  • XTRACT Novel Phytoremediation Solution and concurrent Metal Phytomining using Trees as part of Circular Economy
  • Hyperaccumulator-Based Phytoextraction and Phytoremediation
  • Electrodialysis and Processability Index

Partner Roles

  • LAMMC – technology provider and implementation
  • TUC – technology provider and implementation
  • NTUA/ AMDC – mine owner, technology implementation
  • TUBAF / GEOS technology provider and implementation

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EN V Funded by the EU POS

This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon Europe Research and Innovation Programme under Grant Agreement no. 101138432

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